Tag Archives: Egypt

Globalization in Egypt

Globalization picture

Globalization has been an ongoing issue through most of the world today, it is the process of spreading ideas, goods, and beliefs through interaction, which affects the world environmentally, socially, culturally, and intellectually through advances in transportation. Globalization is caused by advances in technology- because of such advanced technology we have today, it makes traveling and communicating with different people easier due to the fact that everything is safer, cheaper, and more efficient.  How can we measure globalization? Globalization is made of three main components- economy, society, and politics.  Today we’re going to see if Egypt is a globalized country or not.

KOF Index of Globalization-2010
KOF Index of Globalization-2010

According to the KOF (acronym for the German word Konjunkturforschungsstelle, meaning cycle research) Index of Globalization, Egypt was around 40 to 60 percent globalized. The most globalized countries include Canada, Australia, and the Western European countries and they are all around 80 to 100 percent globalized. The least globalized countries include most countries in Africa (Sudan, Libya, DR Congo, etc), some countries in the Middle East (Iraq, Iran,Afghanistan), and a few in South and SouthEast Asia (Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam, etc) and they’re mostly globalized below 40 percent. Egypt is  not super globalized, but decently globalized. The chart below is the globalization rankings of 2013 out of 187 nations in which Egypt ranks 81. Compared to other African countries, Egypt is pretty globalized. However, compared to the more developed countries, Egypt’s globalization rate is still quite low.

Egypt globalization ranking 2013
Egypt globalization ranking 2013

Now moving on to the three types of globalization- economic globalization, social globalization, and political globalization.  Egypt’s economic globalization has been growing at a steady rate, it has signed quite a lot of trading agreements such as the Egypt-EU partnership, the Egypt-EFTA partnership, Greater Arab Free Trade Agreement, and the Egypt Turkey Free Trade Agreement.

Moving on to Egypt’s social globalization,  social globalization is based on three factors- data on personal contact, data on information flows, and data on cultural proximity. Data on personal contact is measured by things such as international tourism and foreign population in the country. Tourism is a big part of Egypt’s economy and society. Around 14.7 million tourists visit Egypt every year, helping Egypt earn nearly 12.5 billion. This is a factor in social globalization because having such a large number of tourists means that Egypt is tolerant of having foreigners visiting their country. Some isolated countries that are less globalized like Bhutan actually avoids having contact with foreigners from other countries. Next on in the social globalization part, we have data on information flow, which includes internet users and rate of families owning electronic devices such as the television. 49.6% of Egypt’s population uses internet and 95% owns at least one television set in their house according to a research done by the World Bank in 2011. The last factor in social globalization is data on cultural proximity, which means the amount of foreign markets such as Ikea or McDonald in the country. In Egypt, many foreign markets have emerged over the past few decades.

Lastly, we have the political globalization. Political Globalization can be measured by the country’s membership in international organizations such as the UN and its international treaties with other countries. Egypt is an active participant in the United Nations and has signed many various international treaties such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, International Convention Standards of Training, Certificates, and Watch Keeping, etc.

Globalization happens every single day throughout the whole entire world, Egypt will be expected to continue to globalize even further in the future.

 

 

 

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Egypt’s Prevailing Wind Currents

Wind currents are a necessity of life and they affect the world greatly. Wind currents play a big part on this planet, they can cause the climate to change from time to time and it leads the people who trade on sea. Many people read generalized wind current maps to get a good idea of the wind currents near them, however the generalized maps actually differs quite a lot from the real-time wind currents.

generalized prevailing wind currents
generalized prevailing wind currents
Real-time wind currents
Real-time wind currents

These two maps are very similar, but the real-time wind currents is a lot more detailed.

Here on these two pictures above we can see quite a few similarities and a bit of a difference. On both pictures the wind current of north Egypt goes upward toward the Mediterranean Sea and the wind current of south Egypt goes downward to the southern African countries like Chad and the Central African Republic.

Egypt wind currents
Egypt wind currents

On the map above, we can also see that there is wind blowing into Egypt from the Red Sea.  After the wind comes in from the Red Sea, it starts blowing south along with the other wind current. This is one part that the generalized wind current map doesn’t show.

Though generalized wind current maps and real-time wind current maps are pretty similar, it would be better to use a real-time wind current map because there are still many details on a real-time wind current map that a generalized map doesn’t show.

 

The world can be mapped in many different ways, and the two I am going to talk about today are a biomes map and an anthropogenic map. The difference between biomes and anthromes is that biomes shows us what the climate, vegetation, and geology would be like without any human environmental interactions. It gives us a clear idea on what our planet would be like without humans living in it. We use anthromes because the earth has been reshaped by humans. An anthrome map shows us how humans make use of the land and how they’ve changed it over time.

The predominate biome in Egypt is the desert biome. Egypt is nearly completely made of desert. Desert here, desert there, desert everywhere. So, as expected, Egypt has a fail agriculture due to the sweltering sun and lack of water. The Egyptian desert, also known as the Sahara, is the biggest desert in the world, and is growing every year because of a magical process called desertification. But guess what they have? The Nile River! The Egyptians all moved near the Nile because the flooding that happens once in a while makes the land fertile enough to grow crops.

Biome map of egypt; grey area is the desert
Biome map of egypt; grey area is the desert

The predominant anthrome of Egypt is of course, wild treeless and barren lands. But if you put that aside, we have irrigated villages and residential irrigated croplands. That’s because they all lived near the Nile River, making them to adopt irrigated systems.

Now let us get started on the anthromes of each century from 1700 AD to 2000 AD:

The only life that existed in 1700 AD Egypt was along the Nile River. Other than that, Egypt was mostly just wild treeless and barren lands. At the North of the Nile River, we had irrigated villages, residential irrigated croplands, residential rainfed croplands, mixed settlements, and residential woodlands. Moving south, the land use were more equally divided between irrigated villages, mixed settlements, rainfed villages, and residential rainfed croplands.

Anthromes of 1700AD
Anthromes of 1700AD

In 1800 AD, there was a pretty significant change in Egypt’s anthrome. Most of the residential rainfed croplands were gone and replaced with inhabited treeless&barren lands in the north. On the other hand, in the south, both the rainfed croplands and the rainfed villages were gone. So that was the major change over the 100 year time period.

1800AD anthromes
1800AD anthromes

Moving on to 1900 AD, the residential irrigated croplands along the Nile River were mostly replaced by irrigated villages. The amount of rainfed villages decreased. The amount of mixed settlements also decreased as the urban settlements increased.

1900AD anthromes
1900AD anthromes

Lastly, we have 2000 AD. We can see that in 2000 AD, the residential rainfed croplands came back though the residential irrigated croplands decreased. Urban settlement and mixed settlement increased quite evenly in both the north and the south, the rainfed villages expanded mostly in the south.

2000AD anthromes
2000AD anthromes

In conclusion, the one major thing that all of these have in common is that life has always been near the Nile River, probably because they wouldn’t be able to survive if they went too far away from it. But through out the years, the residential irrigated croplands gradually turned into irrigated villages. One other significant change is that over time, different types of settlements kicked in where the irrigated villages are.

An anthrome map would be better for viewing the spatial extent of the vegetation on earth. Because an anthrome map allows us to know how people use the land and what kind of croplands are located in what location. That would give us a pretty good idea of which place has which vegetation.

Both anthromes and biomes are fascinating and amazing things. With these two, we can learn about what Earth would be like with and without the trace of humans.