Egypt Air Pollution Relating to Infant Mortality Rate?

Air pollution is a huge problem all around the world and so is infant mortality. Infant mortality is the death of babies under the age of one, it is very common in the poorer countries of the Africa region. Below is population, deaths from pollution, and infant mortality rate jammed into one map.

World Population, Deaths from Outdoor Pollution, and Infant Mortality Rates Map
World Population, Deaths from Outdoor Pollution, and Infant Mortality Rates Map

It’s quite hard to tell read the map due to all the colors layering on top of each other, so let’s read the layers one by one:

Egypt Population Map
Egypt Population Map
Deaths Caused by Outdoor Pollution
Deaths Caused by Outdoor Pollution
Egypt Infant Mortality Rate
Egypt Infant Mortality Rate

Life exists mainly along the Nile River in Egypt. In the first map above, it tells us that Egypt’s population ranges from 26 to a whopping 13,000. It is mostly set around 500-2,500, the total population adds up to be 82.06 million,  which is still quite a lot for such a tiny region. Out of all these people in Egypt, around 20,000.01 to 40,000 people die from outdoor pollution, which suggests that air pollution is a pretty serious problem in Egypt. And from the very last map above, we know that 21 to 48 infants die every year in Egypt.

Studies have shown that air pollution actually leads to increased infant mortality rates. Egypt’s outdoor pollution is a lot worse than a lot of the other countries in Africa though its infant mortality rate is lower than most of them. Why is this? We can conclude that this is probably due to the advantage in advanced technology Egypt has over other African countries. Egypt has always been in the top 10 richest African countries, therefore if they come up with a plan that will decrease the amount of outdoor pollution, they could probably make their infant mortality rates even less.

 

India’s Earthquake Powerplant Risk Analysis

The nuclear powerplants are mostly located in zone II out of the four earthquake zones in India.  The nuclear plants in India are not very safe, due to the fact that India is located in an earthquake prone area. It is constantly bumping into the Indo-Australian plate causing many disastrous earthquakes to occur. The picture below shows the plate boundaries, occurrence of earthquake over a month’s time period, and the location of India’s nuclear power stations.

India nuclear power plants, plate boundaries, and earthquake
India nuclear power plants, plate boundaries, and earthquake+magnitude

As you can see in the picture above, many earthquakes happened in just one month. The magnitudes of these earthquakes range from 0.7 to 7.1. The earthquake on the coast of Indonesia can be a big threat to the Indian power stations because they could cause ginormous tsunamis to go into India and destroy all the nuclear plants on the coast as well as taking away the lives of many people. As for the north, the power stations are located on the Indian plate, so it could be destroyed easily by earthquakes if they’re strong enough. India is an extremely dense country, if any accidents happen to these nuclear powerplants, it’ll cause a massive destruction and kill hundreds and thousands of people in India.

Egypt’s Prevailing Wind Currents

Wind currents are a necessity of life and they affect the world greatly. Wind currents play a big part on this planet, they can cause the climate to change from time to time and it leads the people who trade on sea. Many people read generalized wind current maps to get a good idea of the wind currents near them, however the generalized maps actually differs quite a lot from the real-time wind currents.

generalized prevailing wind currents
generalized prevailing wind currents
Real-time wind currents
Real-time wind currents

These two maps are very similar, but the real-time wind currents is a lot more detailed.

Here on these two pictures above we can see quite a few similarities and a bit of a difference. On both pictures the wind current of north Egypt goes upward toward the Mediterranean Sea and the wind current of south Egypt goes downward to the southern African countries like Chad and the Central African Republic.

Egypt wind currents
Egypt wind currents

On the map above, we can also see that there is wind blowing into Egypt from the Red Sea.  After the wind comes in from the Red Sea, it starts blowing south along with the other wind current. This is one part that the generalized wind current map doesn’t show.

Though generalized wind current maps and real-time wind current maps are pretty similar, it would be better to use a real-time wind current map because there are still many details on a real-time wind current map that a generalized map doesn’t show.

 

The world can be mapped in many different ways, and the two I am going to talk about today are a biomes map and an anthropogenic map. The difference between biomes and anthromes is that biomes shows us what the climate, vegetation, and geology would be like without any human environmental interactions. It gives us a clear idea on what our planet would be like without humans living in it. We use anthromes because the earth has been reshaped by humans. An anthrome map shows us how humans make use of the land and how they’ve changed it over time.

The predominate biome in Egypt is the desert biome. Egypt is nearly completely made of desert. Desert here, desert there, desert everywhere. So, as expected, Egypt has a fail agriculture due to the sweltering sun and lack of water. The Egyptian desert, also known as the Sahara, is the biggest desert in the world, and is growing every year because of a magical process called desertification. But guess what they have? The Nile River! The Egyptians all moved near the Nile because the flooding that happens once in a while makes the land fertile enough to grow crops.

Biome map of egypt; grey area is the desert
Biome map of egypt; grey area is the desert

The predominant anthrome of Egypt is of course, wild treeless and barren lands. But if you put that aside, we have irrigated villages and residential irrigated croplands. That’s because they all lived near the Nile River, making them to adopt irrigated systems.

Now let us get started on the anthromes of each century from 1700 AD to 2000 AD:

The only life that existed in 1700 AD Egypt was along the Nile River. Other than that, Egypt was mostly just wild treeless and barren lands. At the North of the Nile River, we had irrigated villages, residential irrigated croplands, residential rainfed croplands, mixed settlements, and residential woodlands. Moving south, the land use were more equally divided between irrigated villages, mixed settlements, rainfed villages, and residential rainfed croplands.

Anthromes of 1700AD
Anthromes of 1700AD

In 1800 AD, there was a pretty significant change in Egypt’s anthrome. Most of the residential rainfed croplands were gone and replaced with inhabited treeless&barren lands in the north. On the other hand, in the south, both the rainfed croplands and the rainfed villages were gone. So that was the major change over the 100 year time period.

1800AD anthromes
1800AD anthromes

Moving on to 1900 AD, the residential irrigated croplands along the Nile River were mostly replaced by irrigated villages. The amount of rainfed villages decreased. The amount of mixed settlements also decreased as the urban settlements increased.

1900AD anthromes
1900AD anthromes

Lastly, we have 2000 AD. We can see that in 2000 AD, the residential rainfed croplands came back though the residential irrigated croplands decreased. Urban settlement and mixed settlement increased quite evenly in both the north and the south, the rainfed villages expanded mostly in the south.

2000AD anthromes
2000AD anthromes

In conclusion, the one major thing that all of these have in common is that life has always been near the Nile River, probably because they wouldn’t be able to survive if they went too far away from it. But through out the years, the residential irrigated croplands gradually turned into irrigated villages. One other significant change is that over time, different types of settlements kicked in where the irrigated villages are.

An anthrome map would be better for viewing the spatial extent of the vegetation on earth. Because an anthrome map allows us to know how people use the land and what kind of croplands are located in what location. That would give us a pretty good idea of which place has which vegetation.

Both anthromes and biomes are fascinating and amazing things. With these two, we can learn about what Earth would be like with and without the trace of humans.